Smoke Detectors Save Lives
The majority of fatal home fires happen while people are sleeping. And while some may believe that the smell of smoke would wake a sleeping person, that is, unfortunately, not true. The poisonous gases and smoke produced by a fire can numb the senses and put you into a deeper sleep. Household smoke detectors sound an alarm, alerting you to a fire. By giving you time to escape, smoke detectors cut your risk of dying in a home fire nearly in half. They have become so effective and saved so many lives that today; most states have laws requiring them in private homes.
Choosing a Detector
Be sure that the smoke detectors you buy have the label of an independent testing laboratory. Several types of detectors are available. Some run on batteries, other on household current. Some detect smoke using an “ionization” sensor; others use a “photoelectric” detection system.
All approved smoke detectors, regardless of the type, will offer adequate protection provided they are installed and maintained properly.
Is One Enough?
You can never have too many smoke detectors. One is never enough. Every home should have a smoke detector outside each sleeping area and on every level of the home, including the basement.
The National Fire Alarm Code requires a smoke detector in each sleeping room for new construction. On floors without bedrooms, detectors should be installed in or near living areas, such as dens, living rooms or family rooms.
Be sure everyone sleeping in your home can hear the smoke detector alarms. If any residents are hearing-impaired or sleep with bedroom doors closed, install additional detectors inside sleeping areas as well. There also are special smoke detectors for the hearing impaired; these flash a light in addition to sounding an audible alarm.
For Extra Protection
NFPA suggests installing detectors in dining rooms, furnace rooms, utility rooms and hallways. Smoke detectors are not recommended for kitchens, bathrooms or garages, where cooking fumes, steam or exhaust fumes could set off false alarms; or for attics and other unheated spaces where humidity and temperature changes might affect a detector’s operation.
Most battery-powered smoke detectors and detectors that plug into wall outlets can be installed using only a drill and a screwdriver. Plug-in detectors must have restraining devices so they cannot be unplugged by accident. Detectors can also be hard-wired into a building’s electrical system. Hard-wired detectors should be installed by a qualified electrician. Never connect a smoke detector to a circuit that can be turned off by a wall switch.
Where to Install
Since smoke rises, mount detectors high on a wall or on the ceiling. Wall-mounted units should be mounted so that the top of the detector is 4 to 12 inches from the ceiling. A ceiling-mounted detector should be attached at least four inches from the nearest wall. In a room with a pitched ceiling, mount the detector at or near the ceiling’s highest point.
In stairways with no doors at the top or bottom, position smoke detectors anywhere in the path of smoke moving up the stairs. But always position smoke detectors at the bottom of closed stairways, such as those leading to the basement, because dead air trapped near the door at the top of a stairway could prevent smoke from reaching a detector located at the top. Don’t install a smoke detector too close to a window, door or forced-air register where drafts could interfere with the detector’s operation.
Cooking vapors and steam may sometimes set off a smoke detector. To correct this, try moving the detector away from the kitchen or bathroom, or install an exhaust fan. Cleaning your detector regularly, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, may also help. If “nuisance alarms” persist, do not disable the detector; replace the detector.
- Only a functioning smoke detector can protect you from fire.
- Never disable a detector by “borrowing” its battery for another use.
- Test all of your smoke detectors monthly and install new batteries at least once a year. A good reminder is when you change your clocks in the spring or fall; change your clocks, change the battery in your smoke detector.
- Clean your smoke detectors using a vacuum cleaner without removing the detector’s cover. Never paint a smoke detector. And remember, smoke detectors don’t last forever.
- Replace any smoke detector that is more than ten (10) years old.
Plan and Practice
- Make sure everyone is familiar with the sound of the alarm.
- Plan escape routes. Know at least two ways out of each room. Agree on a meeting place outside your home where everyone will gather after they escape. Practice your escape plan at least twice a year. Remove obstructions from doors and windows needed for escape.
- Make sure everyone in the household can unlock doors and windows quickly, even in the dark. Windows or doors with security bars should be equipped with quick-release devices and everyone in the household should know how to use them.
- When an alarm sounds, leave immediately. Go directly to your outside meeting place and call the fire department. Once you’re out, stay out. Never return to a burning building.